know Your District – Kinnaur

know your district kinnaur dailyhimachalgk

Hello Folks!

We’ve started a new series called “Know Your District” in which we are giving all the related information one should know either to enhance their knowledge of Himachal Pradesh or preparing for any Competitive Exams. We are deploying the details that are already given on the internet, So you don’t need to dig out the whole internet. We have stuffed all this information on one page.


Kinnaur has been a part of the ancient princely state of Bushehr. Bushahr was a princely state in India during the British Raj. It was located in the hilly western Himalaya promontory in the northern part of colonial Punjab. The territory of this former state is now part of Kinnaur and Shimla district of the Indian republic’s state of Himachal Pradesh. The erstwhile Bushahr state was occupied by a Gorkha king from central Nepal from 1803 to 1815. Ranjit Singh, the ruler of the Sikh state in Punjab, intervened in 1809 and drove the Nepalese army east of the Satluj river.
Kinnaur is also known as the ‘Land of fairytales’ and remains snow-clad for six Months, quite like Spiti and Lahaul. Kinnaur surrounded by Tibet to the east, there three high mountain ranges, namely, Zanskar, Greater Himalayas, and Dhauladhar that enclose valleys of Sutlej, Spiti, Baspa, and their tributaries. The slopes are covered with thick wood, orchards, fields, and hamlets.
  • On 1st May 1960 Kinnaur fully independent merge and became sixth District of Himachal Pradesh.
  • The headquarter of Kinnaur is Reckong Peo.
  • Kinnaur is divided into two main valleys — Sangla Valley and the Hangrang Valley.
  • Kinnaur is the second richest district in terms of per capita income after Solan in Himachal Pradesh. It is the third-largest district of Himachal Pradesh.
  • The beautiful district was opened for the outsiders in 1989.
  • The old Hindustan-Tibet Road passes through the Kinnaur valley along the bank of river Sutlej and finally enters Tibet at Shipki La pass.
  • The road enters Kinnaur and joins with National Highway No. 5. and NH22 Most dangerous Road of India – Jhakri – Kinnaur – Pooh.

k i n n a u r

  • The total area of Kinnaur is 6,401 km2 (2,471 sq mi)
  • North latitude  31 ° 55’50 “to 32 ° 05 * 15”
  • East longitude  77 ° 45 ‘to 79 ° 04 * 35 “
  • The total population of this district is 84,121
  • The village of Kinnaur is also known as ‘Land of fairytales’.
  • The Sex ratio is 819 women per 1000 men.
  • The economy of Kinnaur depends mainly on agriculture. The main crops are Wheat, Barley, Pseudo-cereals like Buckwheat, Amaranthus, and European type of Vegetables.
  • Tehsils : Nichar,Kalpa,Sangla,Moorang,Pooh.
  • Gram Panchayat:  65
  • Sub Division:  Kalpa, Nichar, Pooh
  • Literacy Rate: 80
  • Vidhan Sabha Constituency: Kinnaur is also a part of Mandi Lok Sabha constituency.
  • Language : Hindi, Kinnauri, Jangshung ,Chitkuli ,Kinnauri ,Shumcho
  • Main River: Sutlej, Baspa river


The History of Kinnaur is generally divided into three parts; Early, Medieval, and Recent.

E A R L Y   H I S T O R Y

While looked into the regions of Himalayas in the 6th century B.C. we found that India was divided into sixteen great janpadas (reign, republic) and several smaller ones. Among them, Gandhara, Kamboja, Kuru, Koshal, Mull, Vajji, Panchal, Sakya were either in the southern Himalayas ranges or had territories extended up to Himalayans ranges.
  • After the collapse of the Mauryan empire, the Kushanas established an extensive empire within and beyond India in the northwest. Emperor Kanishkas hegemony spread over Kashmir and the Central Asian regions of Kashgar, Yarkand, and Khotan.
  • His hold extended up to the territory of the Inner Himalayas and Kinnaur must have been the part of this empire.
  • In the meantime, northern India was divided into a number of small kingdoms and autonomous tribal states. Under such a divided country the Gupta empire grew. Samundragupta’s empire included the territories of Rohilkhand, Kumaon, Garhwal, Nepal, and Assam. Its northern boundary was along the high Himalayas. Kinnaur must have been included in it too. For detailed information please CLICK HERE

M E D I E V A L   H I S T O R Y

By the beginning of the fourteenth century, the entire area of Kinnaur was divided into seven parts, locally called sat khund.
  • In the medieval period, though some of the hill states such as Kangra, Chamba, and Sirmaur were attacked and made tributary to the Mughal emperor at Delhi, Bushahr state could not be reached by any adventurer of that time.
  • Raja Chatar Singh was the one who brought the whole area of the erstwhile Bushahr State under his control. His successor was Kalyan Singh and The successor of Kalyan Singh according to genealogy (Genealogy is the study of families, family history, and the tracing of their lineages.) was Raja Kehri Singh.

R E C E N T  H I S T O R Y

According to Punjab states Gazetteer-Shimla hill States from 1803 to 1815 the erstwhile states of Bushahr faced the menace of Gurkha invasions, Immediate after the death of Raja Kehri Singh, The Gurkhas made a massive attack on Bushahr.
  • The Gurkhas looted the treasury and completely destroyed the records of the state.
  • Amar Singh Thapa, the Gurkha leader went up to Kangra valley. He was drawn from the valley by the superior forces of Ranjit Singh and those of Raja Sansar Chand of Kangra.
You can read more about this battle in another article – “Know Your District – Hamirpur”.
  • The tract between the Satluj and Jamuna came under British protection by the treaty of 1809 between Ranjit Singh and the British Govt. Thus the British Government took a positive step to expel the Gurkhas and after a long and desperate struggle, completely defeated Amar Singh Thapa on 15th April 1815.
  • From the foregoing account, it would appear that during the princely days Kinnaur valley acted as a defensive wall to the Bushahr state. However, with the lapse of paramountcy, the Kinnaur then known as Chini tehsil was merged to form a part of then Mahasu district.
  • Chini tehsil covered the entire Kinnaur valley beyond Wangtu which was created in 1891 by the then ruler Tika Raghunath Singh.
  • 1891 onwards Chinni tehsil continued to be in existence with its vast area beyond Wangtu uptill 1960.
  • Since 1947 it was a tehsil of the then Mahasu district.
  • By 1960 the importance of reorganizing border area was realized and consequently, in view of ethnic and cultural considerations, the areas which were partly in Rampur tehsil were reorganized into a separate District forming the present KINNAUR district.



  • This festival is observed in the month of January.
  • On this day the people take their bath in the natural springs and few even go to Satluj river for bathing if they happen to live near the river.
  • Poltus, rice, pulses, vegetables, meat, halva, chilta, and pug are the principal dishes prepared on this occasion.
  • A fold dance is held. Thereafter the deity is believed to have gone to Kinner Kailash.
  • Better known as ‘Baisakhi’ in the rest of north India, this festival comes in April every year on the first day of the month of Baisakh.
  • Special foods are prepared, the deities are taken out of their temples and a small fair is usually held in every village in Kinnaur.
  • This is normally celebrated in September-October.
  • While Kalpa has the most vibrant celebrations, the festival carries its colors to every part of the district – including the Sangla Valley. Every village sends out its members to collect flowers from the hillsides and these are then gathered in the village square.
  • It is a time of festivities and traditional dances. This festival is unique in tradition and is celebrated as the flower festival.
  • The Rajput people of the village sing and dance during the festival.
  • It is famous in the month of February/March.
  • In this fair, the spirit of Kanda (Peaks) call Kali is mostly worship, the festival lasts concerning a fortnight and is famous all in excess of Kinnaur.
  • On the last day, a banquet is ready and citizens adoration kali on the roof of the houses and then partake of the foodstuff. It is supposed that following the purpose and fair is famous with filled enthusiasm Kali the strength feel glad and bless the villagers with wealth and abundance in the pending years.
  • This fair is famous in the month of July.
  • On this day a banquet is served.
  • The god brings out and the villagers dance previous to her.
  • Zongor and loskar plants are brought from the kand peak and their garland is obtainable to the goddess. A pallid standard on which some Buddhist mantras are written is fixed there as a kind of prayer for the peace of the dead soul.
  • The loser is famous in the month of December to greeting the new year.
  • On this day in the morning a particular training of parched barley varied with buttermilk is in use by all the relations members and they place on a garland of chilgoza visit to the neighbors and friends are reciprocated and greetings of losuma Tashi meaning happy new year are exchanged.
  • Tribal fair is being famous since 1994 from 30 October to 2nd November every year at District Headquarter Reckong Peo and this fair has been affirmed as State Level festival and has been famous since 1987 under dissimilar names like Janjatiya Utsav, Phulaich Utsav and also as Tribal fair.
  • This fair provides a chance to the restricted citizens to sell/show their horticulture/farming create, handiwork, and artifact as well as the Kinnauri civilization groups, participants from additional districts/states also.



  • Kalpa is a small village in the Sutlej river valley, above Reckong Peo in the Kinnaur.
  • This town is famous for its apple orchards.
  • Apples are a major cash-crop for the region.
  • The local inhabitants follow a syncretism (it is a combining of different beliefs) of Hinduism and Buddhism, and many temples in Kalpa are dedicated to both Hindu and Buddhist gods and goddesses.
  • It is also known for its historical temples and monasteries.
  • The average literacy rate of Kalpa is around 83.75%.
  • India’s first-ever voter Shyam Saran Negi also belongs to Kalpa.
  • Sangla Valley is surrounded by evergreen forests, mountain slopes, and snow-clad peaks.
  • The Baspa Valley is also known as the Sangla Valley.
  • Kamru village is located in the Sangla valley.
  • Reckong Peo also spelled Rekong Peo or simply known as Peo by the local inhabitants are headquarters of Kinnaur district, At a height of 2,290 meters.
  • Earlier Kalpa was the headquarters later changed to Reckong Peo, named after the group of people who used to own this place in ancient times.
  • Reckong Peo is also the commercial and administrative center of the Kinnaur district as the biggest market of the entire district is located here.
  • Reckong Peo is 260 kilometers from Shimla.
Read our interesting article on HRTC BUSES
  • Chitkul is a village in Kinnaur district of Himachal Pradesh.
  • Chitkul is the first village of the Baspa Valley and the last village on the old Hindustan-Tibet trade route.
  • During winters, the place mostly remains covered with the snow and the inhabitants move to lower regions of Himachal.
  • According to a recent study by the Centre of Atmospheric Sciences at IIT Delhi, Chitkul has the cleanest air in India.
  • It is the last point in India one can travel to without a permit.
  • Nako is a village in the Himalayas of northern India, located near the Indo-China border in the Trans-Himalayan region of Kinnaur district in Himachal Pradesh.
  • Nako Lake is a prominent feature where it borders the village.
  • Nako Monastery, dated to 1025 AD, is located in the village as well as several other Buddhist chortens.
  • Nako is the largest village at an elevation of 3,625 metres (11,893 ft) (3,662 metres (12,014 ft).
  • Situated at an altitude of 2150m, Nichar is amongst one of the scenic places to see in Kinnaur district.
  • Nichar is one of the three administrative areas in Kinnaur district and is situated between Taranda and Wangtu on the left bank of River Satluj.
  • Blessed with rich flora and fauna, the upper region of Nichar is the home to wildlife species like Ghoral, antelopes, black and red bears.
  • Ribba is a populous village in Kinnaur district, which is situated at an elevation of 3745m above sea level.
  • The village is known for the abundance of Pine Nut or Chilgoza.
  • Ribba is better known as Rirang and it is believed that the village got its name due to the plenty of Pine Nut as according to the local dialect, Ri means Chilgoza (Pine nut) and Rang means Mountain peak.
  • Ribba is an ideal place for nature lovers as it is dotted with fruit orchards and vineyards.
  • According to belief, It is the kund that was created by Goddess Parvati herself. Also, it was the meeting point of Lord Shiva and the goddess, so it was also known as ‘Aashiqi Park’.
  • As per another mythological belief, every winter, Lord Shiva used to conduct a meeting of gods and goddesses here at Kinner Kailash.
  • Kinner Kailash has a huge shivling on peak of Himalayan hill dedicated to Lord Shiva.
  • This pilgrimage is a holy shrine of both Hindus and Buddhists.
  • It is located at an altitude of 6,050 m (15,000 ft) above sea level.


  • Sarahan
  • Chango
  • kothi
  • Leo
  • Poo
  • Moorang
  • Leepa


Kinnaur has both Hinduism and Buddhism temples. Some of them are;
  • Kamru Temple
  • Kathi Temple
  • Both Monastery
  • Budhist Monastery
  • Chhitkul Temple
  • Bubh Mandir Kothi
  • Chango Temple
  • Bhimakali Temple


  • ‘Chhamu’ is the shirt worn by men of Kurti.
  • ‘Chhamu Suthan’ is woolen pajamas worn by men.
  • ‘Dhepang’ is the name of the Himachali cap.
  • Women wear dhori, choli, and gachang.
  • ‘Chanali’ is shawl.


  • Baspa starts near the Indo-Tibetan border at the Baspa hills.
  • The Baspa meets the Sutlej River at Karcham (1,830 m).
  • The Chung Sakhago Pass lies at the head of the valley. Length: 75 km
  • The Sutlej river divides Kinnaur into two equal parts.
  • The Sutlej is known as Juganti and Mukasung in Tibet.
  • The Ropa River joins the Sutlej River near Shiyashu.
  • Kasang, Taiti, Yula, Mulgun, Spiti and Baspa are the major tributaries of the Sutlej in Kinnaur.
The major lakes of Kinnaur are:
  • Nako (located in Hongrang Tehsil)
  • Sorang (located in Nichar Tehsil).
  • kara lake
  • Dhankar lake


  • The first primary school in Kinnaur opened in 1890 AD in Chinese and Second Primary School opened in the year 1899.
  • Sheep breeding center is in Kadcham of Kinnaur.
  • Neoja tree (To have more information do watch this video – NEOJA) is found only in Kinnaur all over the country.
  • Ribba is the land of grapes.
  • Chini is the oldest name of the Kalpa
  • Ladakh is known as in Kinnaur is Mona.
  • Lord Dalhousie shifted his summer headquarters from Shimla to Chini , now is know as Kalpa.
  • Bhabha is the largest village in Kinnaur which is located in Bhabha valley.
  • Sutlej Valley is the largest valley of Kinnaur.
  • Kinnaur is well known for its delicious apples, Chilgoza, handlooms, and handicraft materials.
  • Kagyupa temple has a highly valued old image of the Shakyamuni Buddha.

Books are written on Kinnaur

  • Kinnar Desh-Rahul Sankrityayan
  • Kinnar in the Himalaya-SC Vajpayee
  • Kinnar folk literature – Banshiram Sharma
  • The Music of Kinnaur-E.A. Chauhan
Reference from:
Wikipedia, one Himachal site, India hikes, Himachal tourism, and Himachal Pradesh government site for Kinnaur.
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About Rahul Dhatwalia 67 Articles
Rahul loves to read article on internet, He crawls over whole net for interesting and unknown facts. He is presently working in Public Sector Bank. In Leisure time He loves to play guitar, produce music and watching movies.

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