Climate Zones of Himachal Pradesh
There is a huge variation in the climatic conditions of Himachal Pradesh due to variation in altitude (450–6500 metres). The climate varies from hot and sub-humid tropical (450–900 metres) in the southern low tracts, warm and temperate (900–1800 metres), cool and temperate (1900–2400 metres) and cold glacial and alpine (2400–4800 metres) in the northern and eastern high elevated mountain ranges.
Of all the state districts, Dharamsala receives the highest rainfall, nearly about 3400 mm. Spiti is the driest area of the state (rainfall below 50mm). The reason is that it is enclosed by high mountains on all sides.
SHIVALIK HILL ZONE
- Climate Sub Tropical, consists of foothills and valley area from 350 to 650 meters above mean sea level.
- It occupies about 35% of the geographical area and about 40% of the cultivated area of the State.
- The major crops grown in this Zone are Wheat, Maize, Paddy, Gram, Sugarcane, Mustard, Potato, Vegetables etc.
MID HILL ZONE
- This zone extends from 651 meters to 1,800 meters above mean sea level.
- It is having mild temperate climate.
- It occupies about 32% of the total geographical area and about 37% of the cultivated area of the State.
- The major crops are Wheat, Maize, Barley, Black Gram, Beans, Paddy etc.
- This zone has very good potential for the cultivation of cash crops like Off-Season Vegetables, Ginger and production of quality seeds of temperate vegetables like Cauliflower and root crops.
HIGH HILL ZONE
- It lies from 1,801 to 2,200 meters above sea level with humid temperate climate and alpine pastures.
- This zone covers about 35% of the geographical areas and about 21% of the cultivated area of the State.
- The commonly grown crops are Wheat, Barley, Lesser Millets, Pseudo-cereals (Buckwheat and Amaranthus), Maize and Potato etc.
- The area is ideally suited for the production of quality seed Potato and temperate Vegetables.
- This zone possesses good pastures and meadows.
COLD DRY ZONE
- It Comprises of Lahaul-Spiti and Kinnaur Districts and Pangi Tehsil of Chamba District lying about 2,200 meters above mean sea level.
- It occupies about 8% of the geographical and 2% of the total cultivated area of the State.
- The major crops grown are Wheat,Barley, Pseudo-cereals like Buck wheat and Amaranthus.
- It is ideally suited for the production of quality Seed Potato, temperate and European type of Vegetables and their Seeds, Seed Potato, Peas as green and seed purposes.
|Particulars and Characteristics||Shivalik Zone||Mid-Hill Zone||High hill zone||Trans-Himalayan Zone|
|Altitude||Up to 800 m||800m-1,600m||1,600m-2,700m||2,700m-3,600m|
|Type of area||Valley areas and foothills||Hilly and mountain ranges||Alpine zone||Lahaul Spiti and Kinnaur range|
|Climatic conditions||Sub tropical||Slightly warm temperature||Cool temperature with humidity||Dry and extremely cold conditions|
|Rainfall in mm.||1,500||1,500-3000||1,000-1,500||500|
|% of total geographical area||30%||10%||25%||35%|
|% of total cultivated area||55%||30%||10%||5%|
EXTERNAL REFERENCES Wikipedia